Agriculture is fundamental to human existence and is crucial to economic growth: in 2018, it accounted for 4 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) and in some developing countries, it can account for more than 25% of GDP. In countries such as India more than 60% of the population is still closely connected with agriculture. Cropping systems vary among farming communities depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmers. This sector is tasked with the hallowed responsibility of preparing to feed a population of 10 billion people by 2050. Agriculture also has a major role in the efforts against climate-change: Agriculture, forestry and land use change are responsible for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions because agriculture accounts for 70 percent of water use and generates unsustainable levels of pollution and waste and since about 1/3 of food produced globally is either lost or wasted.
That is why mitigation in the agriculture sector is part of the solution to climate change, as the World Bank has emphasized.The history of agriculture in India dates back to Indus Valley civilization era and even before that in some parts of southern India. The agriculture sector is one of the most important industries in the Indian economy. Agriculture and allied sectors like animal husbandry, forestry and fisheries account for more than 15% of the Indian GDP. Agricultural activity involves about 41.49% of the workforce. India ranks first in the world with highest net cropped area followed by US and China. As per FAO agriculture statistics India is the world's largest producer of many fresh fruits like banana, mango, guava, papaya, lemon and vegetables like chickpea, okra and milk, major spices like chili pepper, ginger, fibrous crops such as jute, staples such as millets and castor oil seed. India is the second largest producer of wheat and rice, the world's major food staples. India is currently the world's second largest producer of several dry fruits, agriculture-based textile raw materials, roots and tuber crops, pulses, farmed fish, eggs, coconut, sugarcane and numerous vegetables. India is ranked under the world's five largest producers of over 80% of agricultural produce items, including many cash crops such as coffee and cotton. India is one of the world's five largest producers of livestock and poultry meat, with one of the fastest growth rates. Aquaculture and catch fishery is amongst the fastest growing industries in India. India has shown a steady average nationwide annual increase in the kilograms produced per hectare for some agricultural items, over the last 60 years. Dairy farming based on the Amul Pattern, with a single marketing cooperative, is India's largest self-sustaining industry and its largest rural employment provider. Successful implementation of the Amul model has made India the world's largest milk producer.Agriculture sector gains have come mainly from India's green revolution, improving road and power generation infrastructure, knowledge of gains and reforms. India’s agricultural research system has contributed in a large way to increasing agriculture production and productivity. Development of high yielding and disease resistant varieties has been its major hall mark. India has one of the largest Public Agricultural Research Establishments in the world. With Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) at the top, India has 30 State Agriculture Universities, 46 Institutes including 4 Deemed Universities, 4 National Bureau, 9 Project Directorates, 31 National Research Centers and many regional stations.
Sources- Various, Britannica, Wikipedia.
Sector: AGRICULTURE, DAIRY, FISHERIES 27, Sep, 2023 RAGHAV CHANDRA
Sector: AGRICULTURE, DAIRY, FISHERIES 27, Sep, 2021 SIDDHARTH VAID
Sector: AGRICULTURE, DAIRY, FISHERIES 26, Sep, 2021 AAMIR MANAN DEVA